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1 ’cause
’cause   also cause
  ’Cause is an informal way of saying because.
30 families are suffering ’cause they’re out of work.
  CONJ

2 ’cos
’cos   also cos
  ’Cos is an informal way of saying because. (BRIT SPOKEN; in AM, use ’cause)
It was absolutely horrible going up the hills ’cos they were really, really steep.
  CONJ

3 ’n’
’n’
  The word `and’ is sometimes written as ’n’ between certain pairs of words, as in `rock ’n’ roll’. (INFORMAL)
...a country ’n’ western song.
...a fish ’n’ chips restaurant.
  CONJ
  = and

4 -’d
1. -’d is a spoken form of `had’, especially when `had’ is an auxiliary verb. It is added to the end of the pronoun which is the subject of the verb. For example, `you had’ can be shortened to `you’d’.

2. -’d is a spoken form of `would’. It is added to the end of the pronoun which is the subject of the verb. For example, `I would’ can be shortened to `I’d’.

5 -’ll
-’ll
  -’ll is the usual spoken form of `will’. It is added to the end of the pronoun which is the subject of the verb. For example, `you will’ can be shortened to `you’ll’.

6 -’m
-’m
  ’m is the usual spoken form of `am’, used after `I’ in `I’m’.

7 -’re
-’re
  -’re is the usual spoken form of `are’. It is added to the end of the pronoun or noun which is the subject of the verb. For example, `they are’ can be shortened to `they’re’.

8 -’s
1. -’s is added to nouns to form possessives. However, with plural nouns ending in `-s’, and sometimes with names ending in `-s’, you form the possessive by adding -’.
...the chairman’s son.
...women’s rights.
...a boys’ boarding-school.
...Sir Charles’ car.

2. -’s is the usual spoken form of `is’. It is added to the end of the pronoun or noun which is the subject of the verb. For example, `he is’ and `she is’ can be shortened to `he’s’ and `she’s’.

3. -’s is the usual spoken form of `has’, especially where `has’ is an auxiliary verb. It is added to the end of the pronoun or noun which is the subject of the verb. For example, `It has gone’ can be shortened to `It’s gone’.

4. -’s is sometimes added to numbers, letters, and abbreviations to form plurals, although many people think you should just add `-s’.
...new strategies for the 1990’s.
...p’s and q’s.

9 -’ve
’ve is the usual spoken form of `have’, especially when `have’ is an auxiliary verb. It is added to the end of the pronoun which is the subject of the verb. For example, `you have’ can be shortened to `you’ve’.

10 -ability
-ability  -abilities
  -ability replaces `-able’ at the end of adjectives to form nouns. Nouns formed in this way refer to the state or quality described by the adjectives.
...the desirability of global co-operation...
No one ever questioned her capability.
  SUFFIX

11 -able
-able
  -able combines with verbs to form adjectives. Adjectives formed in this way describe someone or something that can have a particular thing done to them. For example, if something is avoidable, it can be avoided.
These injuries were avoidable...
He was an admirable chairman.
  SUFFIX

12 -an
-an  -ans
1. -an is added to the names of some places in order to form adjectives or nouns that refer to people or things which come from that place.
The Australian foreign minister...
Mitch was a San Franciscan by birth.
  SUFFIX

2. -an is added to the names of famous people to form adjectives or nouns that refer to people or things which are connected with or typical of that person’s work or the time at which they lived.
...a great Shakespearean actor.
...an exhibition of fine Victorian furniture.
  SUFFIX

13 -appointed
-appointed
  -appointed combines with adverbs to form adjectives such as well-appointed that describe a building or room that is equipped or furnished in the way that is mentioned. (WRITTEN)
Sloan looked round the well-appointed kitchen...
  COMB in ADJ

  see also self-appointed

14 -armed
-armed
1. -armed is used with adjectives to indicate what kind of arms someone has.
...plump-armed women in cotton dresses.
  COMB in ADJ

2. -armed is used with adjectives such as `nuclear’ and nouns such as `missile’ to form adjectives that indicate what kind of weapons an army or person has.
...nuclear-armed navy vessels.
  COMB in ADJ

3.
  see also armed

15 -ation
-ation  -ations
  -ation and -ion are added to some verbs in order to form nouns. Nouns formed in this way often refer to a state or process; for example, starvation is the process of starving, and victimization is the process of being victimized.
  SUFFIX

16 -baiting
-baiting
1. You use -baiting after nouns to refer to the activity of attacking a particular group of people or laughing at their beliefs.
  COMB in N-UNCOUNT

2. Badger-baiting, bear-baiting, and bull-baiting involve making these animals fight dogs, while making sure that the animals are unable to defend themselves properly.
  COMB in N-UNCOUNT

17 -banded
-banded
  -banded combines with colours to indicate that something has bands of a particular colour.
Tables are set with white china and gold-banded silver cutlery.
  COMB in ADJ
  = -striped

18 -barrelled
-barrelled
in AM, use -barreled
  -barrelled combines with adjectives to form adjectives that describe a gun which has a barrel or barrels of the specified type.
...a short-barreled rifle.
...a double-barrelled shotgun.
  COMB in ADJ

  see also double-barrelled

19 -based
-based
1. -based combines with nouns referring to places to mean something positioned or existing mainly in the place mentioned, or operating or organized from that place.
...a Washington-based organization.
...land-based missiles...
  COMB in ADJ

2. -based combines with nouns to mean that the thing mentioned is a central part or feature.
...computer-based jobs.
...oil-based sauces.
  COMB in ADJ

3. -based combines with adverbs to mean having a particular kind of basis.
There are growing signs of more broadly-based popular unrest.
  COMB in ADJ

20 -basher
-basher  -bashers
  -basher combines with nouns to form nouns referring to someone who is physically violent towards a particular type of person, or who is unfairly critical of a particular type of person.
...gay-bashers who go around looking for homosexuals to beat up...
  COMB in N-COUNT  disapproval

21 -bashing
-bashing
1. -bashing combines with nouns to form nouns or adjectives that refer to strong, public, and often unfair criticism of the people or group mentioned. (JOURNALISM)
Tory-bashing or Labour-bashing will not be enough to shift bored, suspicious voters.
  COMB in N-UNCOUNT, ADJ  disapproval

2. -bashing combines with nouns to form nouns or adjectives that refer to the activity of violently attacking the people mentioned just because they belong to a particular group or community.
...an outburst of violent gay-bashing in New York and other cities.
  COMB in N-UNCOUNT, ADJ  disapproval

3.
  see also bash

22 -bearing
-bearing
  -bearing combines with nouns to form adjectives which describe things that hold the specified substance inside them.
...oil-bearing rocks.
...malaria-bearing mosquitos.
  COMB in ADJ

23 -bedded
-bedded
  -bedded combines with numbers to form adjectives which indicate how many beds a room contains. -bedded combines with words such as `twin’ or `double’ to form adjectives which indicate what kind of beds a room contains.
...a four-bedded room.
...twin-bedded cabins.
  COMB in ADJ: usu ADJ n

24 -bedroomed
-bedroomed
  -bedroomed combines with numbers to form adjectives which indicate how many bedrooms a particular house or flat has.
...a two-bedroomed flat.
  COMB in ADJ

25 -behaved
-behaved
  -behaved combines with adverbs such as `well’ or `badly’ to form adjectives that describe people’s or animals’ behaviour.
The children are well-behaved and keen to learn.
  COMB in ADJ

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